There are seven general types of support options in the inclusion continuum that schools
utilise, depending on individual student needs.
1. Full inclusion in the regular program with some initial consideration or adjustment
The student may require a lap top computer to keep up with peers or
modified equipment, such as a cut out desk to fit a wheelchair or block
mounted scissors. A student with a physical disability may require more
room between classroom furniture to manoeuvre a wheel chair or walker,
ramps at doorways, a wheelchair tray to move belongings from room to
room, extra time to move to different activities or classes and the
wheelchair battery recharging each evening. Once initial considerations
are made, the student is able to operate as independently as class
2. Full participation in the regular program with on-going minor modifications or adjustment
Students with a hearing impairment generally need to be seated at the
front of the room to see the teacher’s lips. They may require an FM
microphone system. Students with vision impairment may need to be seated
close to the board to use aids to see board work. They may need
magnifiers or enlarged print. Some students may need to be seated next
to a ‘competent buddy.’ Students with a physical disability may require
particular considerations for regularised medical or health care
services such as toileting, intermittent catheterisation or insulin
treatment for diabetes. Some may need peer or teacher support to access
or set up equipment.
3. Full participation in the regular curriculum with some assistance provided
Tasks need to be modified, explanations and directions need to be
simplified, reiterated or rephrased and checked for understanding. Some
adult support may be required for the student to attend to or stay on
task. Some students may require physical assistance to access and/or
manipulate materials or to move from one part of the school to another.
Some students may require assistance for non-regularised personal health
4. Partial participation in the regular program with reduced curriculum and assessment requirements
A student with a visual impairment or a physical disability, who
works more slowly than others, may require reduced tasks, work output or
assessment provisions or use specialised technological aids. A student
with an intellectual disability may work at the same learning areas as
peers but tasks are simplified or set at a lower academic level than
peers with fewer demands. The student may be involved in small group
intensive literacy/numeracy learning activities. Some teaching assistant
time may be required.
5. Modified curriculum provisions with different content and volume of work with little if any additional assistance
All curriculum tasks and activities are modified/adapted to the
student’s level of ability. The student works on an individualised
program but once set to task does not need additional adult assistance
beyond that of the teacher, to complete the tasks.
6. Parallel participation with an individualised program with varying levels of adult assistance
The student works alongside peers on a separate individual program
directed to his/her ability level. The student requires adult assistance
to understand, stay on and complete tasks. A student with a physical
disability may be involved in the same activities as peers but requires
adult assistance for physical or safety reasons, e.g. cutting
activities, woodwork, cooking, phys-ed etc.
7. Alternative provisions and alternative curriculum for most of the school day
The student’s learning needs, abilities and adaptive behaviour is
significantly different to peers. The program may be directed towards
functional literacy and numeracy or living skills, which is better
delivered on a one to one or small group basis in an alternative
setting. The student may work with peers during less academic activities
or for socialisation.